Van Rensselaer Patroonship

In 1629, the Dutch West India Company (WIC), a chartered trading company, instituted a system for establishing permanent colonies in the New World Dutch holdings of New Netherland. The system granted large tracts of land to investors, or patroons as they were called, who agreed to settle fifty colonists on their land in four years time at their own expense.

The Dutch diamond merchant, Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, who was also a director of the WIC, selected a large tract of land that bordered both east and west banks of the Hudson River (then known as the North River) around the site of Fort Orange, the present location of Albany. Even though Van Rensselaer received the land from the WIC, he was also obliged to purchase it from the Native inhabitants. By 1631, Van Rensselaer’s agent, Bastiaen Jansz Krol, concluded negotiations with the Mohican Indians to purchase the land that became known as Rensselaerswyck.

The WIC granted several other patroonships throughout the Hudson River valley, but Van Rensselaer’s was the only one to survive beyond the takeover of the colony by the English in 1664. English Governor Thomas Dongan ensured the survival of the patroonship by granting patents for the Van Rensselaer land and simultaneously creating the manor of Rensselaerswyck. All land in the manor belonged to the Van Rensselaer family, while those who lived and farmed the land were merely tenants who owed annual rent to the Van Rensselaers. This feudal system led to conflict known as the Anti-Rent Wars years later following Stephen Van Rensselaer III’s death in 1839.

The ornate bronze cannon that descended through the Van Rensselaer family was cast in 1630 for Kiliaen Van Rensselaer by the famous Dutch gun and bell founder Assuerus Koster. It may have come to New Netherland with the first group of Van Rensselaer colonists who arrived in the area in 1630.

 

Magnifying Glass
Van Rensselaer Cannon
Cast by Assuerus Koster, Amsterdam, Netherlands
1630
Bronze, with wood and iron carriage
Courtesy of New York State Museum, H-1937.4.1
Magnifying Glass
Renselaerswyck Map
Gillis Van Scheyndel
1631 or 1632
Ink on vellum